สะเดา สมุนไพรรสขม แต่มากคุณค่า

หากจะพูดถึงสะเดา หลายคนคงจะนึกถึงรสชาติที่สุดแสนจะขมของมัน แต่ สรรพคุณทางสมุนไพร ของสะเดามีอยู่ไม่น้อยทีเดียว

สะเดา สมุนไพรไทยชื่อวิทยาศาสตร์

Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Var. siamensis Veleton. วงศ์ Lythraceae

ชื่ออังกฤษ Siamese neem tree.

ชื่อท้องถิ่น สะเดา (กลาง) สะเลียม (เหนือ) กะเดา (ใต้) จะตัง (ส่วย)

ลักษณะทางพฤกษศาสตร์

เป็นไม้ยืนต้น สูง 5-10 เมตรใบ เป็นใบประกอบแบบขนนก เรียงสลับใบย่อยรูปใบหอก ขอบใบหยักฟันเลื่อยฐานใบไม่เท่ากัน ใบย่อย กว้าง 2-2.5 เซนติเมตร ยาว 3-4.5 เซนติเมตร ยอดอ่อนมีสีน้ำตาลแดง ดอกช่อ ออกที่ปลายกิ่ง จะออกดอกเมื่อใบแก่ร่วงไป กลีบดอกสีขาว มีกลิ่นหอม ผล เป็นผลสดรูปรี กลม ใน 1 ผล มี 1 เมล็ด

การใช้ในเครื่องสำอางและสรรพคุณทางยา

สะเดาเป็นพืชที่คนไทยรู้จักกันมานานใช้เป็นอาหาร ยารักษาโรค และยาฆ่าแมลง ทุกส่วนของสะเดามีรดขม ยอดใบสะเดาใช้เป็นผักจิ้มได้ เปลือกต้นใช้เป็นยาขมเจริญอาหาร ยาฝาดสมาน ใบใช้เป็นยารักษาไข้มาเลเรีย น้ำมันจากเมล็ดใช้รักษาโรคผิวหนัง ผสมเป็นยาทา แก้โรครูมาติซั่มและใช้เป็นยาขับพยาธิ กากเมล็ดนำไปแช่น้ำเป็นยาฆ่าแมลงได้

ทำให้ฟันแข็งแรงขาวสะอาดเป็นเงางาม

คนท้องถิ่นอินเดียใช้สะเดาสีฟันมานาน ตื่นเช้าขึ้นมาก็จะเดนมาหักกิ่งสะเดาแล้วก็สีฟัน กิ่งสะเดานอกจากช่วยทำความสะอาดแล้วยังช่วยบำรุงรักษาฟันและเหงือกให้แข็งแรงด้วย กิ่งสะเดามีรสขม จึงควรเลือกกิ่งเล็ก ๆ กัดทีละนิดให้รสขม ออกมาทีละน้อย ใช้กิ่งยาวขนาดเท่าแปรง นำมาถูฟัน ถูไปถูมาจนขนแปรงหลุด แล้วขบใหม่ นอกจากกิ่งสะเดาแล้ว เปลือกต้นสะเดาก็ทำแปรงสีฟันได้ โดยใช้เปลือกสะเดายาว 2-3 นิ้วขูดเอาเปลือกนอกดำ ๆ ออก ทุบปลายให้แตก ใช้ส่วนปลายอ่อนถูฟัน ใช้แล้วฟันจะแข็งแรงขาวสะอาดเป็นเงางาม

สารสำคัญ

ใบ มี quercetin และสารพวก limonoid ได้แก่ nimbolide และ nimbic acid ใน เมล็ด มี Azadirachtin ประมาณ 0.4-1% เปลือกต้น มีสาร nimbin และ desacetylnimbin

ข้อควรระวัง

  1. ห้ามใช้กับคนที่มีความดันโลหิตต่ำ เนื่องจากสะเดาจะไปลดความดันให้ต่ำลงมาอีก ทำให้หน้ามืดเป็นลม
  2. สะเดามีรสขม จึงเป็นยาเย็น บางคนอาจไม่ถูกกับบาเย็นทำให้ท้องอืดเกิดลมในกระเพาะ
  3. ห้ามใช้กับหญิงที่ให้นมบุตร เพราะจะทำให้น้ำนมไม่มี

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