ทับทิม ผลไม้สมุนไพร มากประโยชน์

ทับทิม เป็นพืชสมุนไพรไทย หรือจะเรียกว่าเป็น ผลไม้สมุนไพรก็ได้ ด้วยรสชาติที่หอมหวานจึงมีคนนำทับทิมมาประยุกต์เป็นอาหารที่หลาหลาย เช่นนำมาใส่ของหวาน ทำทับทิมลอยแก้ว นอกจากนี้ในด้านการเป็นสมุนไพร ทับทิมยังมีสรรพคุณต่างๆอีกมากมาย

ทับทิม สมุนไพรไทยข้อมูลทั่วไปของทับทิม
ชื่อวิทยาศาสตร์   Punica granatum Linn.
ชื่อวงศ์ PUNICACEAE

ชื่อเรียกตามแต่ละท้องถิ่น
มะแก๊ะ (เหนือ) มะก่องแก้ว พิลาขาว (น่าน) หมากลิง (เงี้ยว-แม่ฮ่องสอน) พิลา (หนองคาย) เจียะลิ้ว (จีน)

ลักษณะโดยทั่วไป
ต้น เป็นไม้ยืนต้น หรือไม้พุ่ม ขนาดเล็ก ลักษณะผิวเปลือกลำต้นมีสีเทา ส่วนที่เป็นกิ่งหรือยอดอ่อนจะเป็นเหลี่ยม หรือ มีหนามแหลมยาวขึ้น
ใบ ใบมีลักษณะเป็นรูปยาวรี โคนใบมน แคบ ส่วนปลายใบเรียวแหลมสั้น ผิวหลังใบ เกลี้ยงเป็นมัน ใต้ท้องใบจะเห็นเส้นใบได้ชัด ขนาดของใบกว้างประมาณ 1 – 1.8 ซม. ยาว ประมาณ 2.5 – 6 ซม.
ดอก ดอกออกเป็นช่อ หรืออาจจะเป็น ดอกเดียว ในบริเวณปลายยอด หรือง่ามกิ่ง ลักษณะของดอกมีเป็น สีส้ม สีขาว หรือสีแดง ดอกหนึ่งมีกลีบดอกประมาณ 6 กลีบ ปลายกลีบ ดอกจะแยกออกจากกัน ตรงกลางดอกมีเกสร ตัวเมีย และตัวผู้ซึ่งมีอับเรณูเป็นสีเหลือง ขนาดของดอกบานเต็มที่มีเส้นผ้าศูนย์กลางประมาณ 2 – 3 ซม. ผลมีลักษณะเป็นรูปค่อนข้าง กลม ผิวเปลือกนอกหนาเกลี้ยง ผลเมื่อแก่หรือ สุกเต็มที่มีสีเหลืองปนแดง และลักษณะของผล จะแตก หรืออ้างออก ข้างในผลก็จะมีเมล็ดเป็น จำนวนมาก เป็นรูปเหลี่ยม มีสีชมพูสด

การขยายพันธุ์ ทับทิมนั้นเป็นพืชที่โตได้ดีในดินปนทรายหรือดินที่มีกรวด สามารถขยายพันธุ์ด้วยการตอนกิ่ง หรือการใช้ เมล็ด

ส่วนที่ใช้ เปลือกลำต้น , ใบ , ดอก, เปลือกผล , เมล็ด , และเปลือกราก

สรรพคุณ

ใบ ใช้ใบสดนำมาต้ม กรองเอาน้ำใช้ล้าง แผลเนื่องจากมีหนองเรื้อรังบนหัว หรือใช้ใบ สดนำมาตำให้ละเอียดแล้วเอาไปพอกในบริเวณที่เป็นแผลถลอก เนื่องจากหกล้มได้เป็น ต้น

เปลือกต้น ในเปลือกของลำต้นจะมีอัลกาลอยด์ประมาณ 0.35 – 0.6 ฺ% และอัลกาลอยด์ในเปลือกของลำต้นนี้ มีชื่อเรียกว่า Pelle tierine และ Isopelletierine ซึ่งเป็นยา ถ่ายพยาธิได้ผลดี

เมล็ด ใช้เมล็ดที่แห้งแล้วประมาณ 6 – 9 กรัม นำมาบดให้ละเอียด หรือทำเป็นยาก้อน หรือยาลูกกลอน กิน เป็นยาแก้โรคปวด จุกแน่น เนื่องจาก โรคกระเพาะอาหาร บำรุงกระเพาะอาหาร ทำ ให้เจริญอาหาร และแก้ท้องร่วง เป็นต้น

เปลือกราก ใช้เปลือกรากที่แห้งแล้ว ประมาณ 6 – 12 กรัม นำมาต้มน้ำกิน เป็นยาแก้ระดูขาว ตกเลือด ถ่ายพยาธิ หล่อลื่นลำไส้ แก้ท้องเสีย และโรคบิดเรื้อรังเป็นต้น

ดอก ใช้ดอกที่แห้งประมาณ 3 – 6 กรัม นำมาต้มกรองเอาน้ำดื่ม เป็นยาแก้ให้เลือด กำเดาแข็งตัว และแก้หูชั้นในอักเสบ หรือใช้ ดอกแห้งนำมาบดให้ละเอียดแล้วใช้ทา หรือโรยบริเวณบาดแผลที่มีเลือดออก

เปลือกผล ใช้เปลือกผลที่แห้งแล้วประมาณ 2.5 – 4.5 กรัม นำมาบดให้ละเอียด หรือนำ มาต้มน้ำกิน ใช้เป็นยาแก้โรคท้องเสีย โรค บิดเรื้อรัง ถ่ายเป็นมูกเลือด ถ่ายพยาธิตกขาว ดากออก แผลหิด และกลากเกลื้อนเป็นต้น

 

เป็นไงบ้างครับประโยชน์ของทับทิม ว่าแล้วก็เด็ดมาทานสักลูกจากต้นข้างบ้านดีกว่า

ขอบคุณกรมการแพทย์แผนไทยสำหรับข้อมูล

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