Sep 232012
 

จะสั่งข้าวที เวลานึกอะไรไม่ออกเรามักจะสั่ง กระเพราไข่ดาวจานนึง บางคนอาจจะบอกเราสิ้นคิด แต่ด้วยรสชาติที่ถูกปากคนไทย ใครจะว่าก็ไม่เป็นไร หนำซ้ำกระเพรายังมีคุณค่าของ สมุนไพรไทย มากมายอีกด้วย

กระเพรา สมุนไพรไทยกระเพรา
ชื่อวิทย์ Ocimum sanctum, Linn.
ชื่อวงศ์ Fam. : MALVACEAE

ชื่ออื่น
กระเพราแดง, กระเพราขาว (ภาคกลาง)
ก่ำก้อขาว , ก่ำก้อดำ, กอมก้อขาว, กอมก้อดำ (เชียงใหม่-ภาเหนือ)
ห่อตูปลา, ห่อกวอซู (กะเหรี่ยง-แม่ฮ่องสอน

ลักษณะโดยทั่่วไป
ลำต้น เป็นไม้พุ่มขนาดเล็ก มีความสูง ประมาณ 30-120 เซนติเมตร โคนของลำต้น เนื้อไม้แข็ง มีขน มีกลิ่นหอม
ใบ ใบสีเขียว เรียกว่า กะเพราขาว ใบสีแดงเรียกว่า กะเพราแดง ใบของมันมีขนโดย เฉพาะส่วนที่เป็นยอด
ของมันจะมีมากกว่าส่วน อื่น ๆ ใบมีกลิ่นหอม
กิ่ง กิ่งก้านเป็นรูปสี่เหลี่ยม ส่วนปลายของ มันจะอ่อน
ดอก ดอกออกเป็นช่อ ตั้งขึ้นไปเป็น ชั้น ๆ คล้ายรูปฉัตร กลีบดอกกะเพราขาว มีสีขาว แต่ ถ้าเป็นกะเพราแดง มีสีชมพูอมม่วง
เมล็ด เมื่อแก่หรือแห้ง เมล็ดจะเป็นสีดำ อยู่ข้างในซึ่งหุ้มด้วยกลีบเลี้ยงของมัน
การขยายพันธุ์ ใช้เมล็ด หรือลำต้น ใน การขยายพันธุ์ได้ ปลูกขึ้นดีในดินร่วนซุยน้ำ น้อย
ส่วนที่ใช้ ใบ, เมล็ด, ราก
สรรพคุณ
ใบ ใบสดของมัน มีน้ำมันหอมระเหยอยู่ ซึ่ง ประกอบด้วย linaloo และ methyl chavicol เป็นยาแก้ขับลม ท้องอืด ท้องเฟ้อ
ปวดท้อง บำรุงธาตุ ขับผายลม แก้อาการจุกเสียดในท้อง ให้ใช้ใบสด หรือยอดอ่อน สัก 1 กำมือ มาต้ม ให้เดือด แล้วกรอง
เอาน้ำดื่ม แต่ถ้าใช้กับเด็ก ทารกให้นำเอามาตำให้ละเอียดคั้นเอาน้ำนำมา ผสมกับน้ำยามหาหิงคุ์แล้วใช้ทาบริเวณ รอบ ๆ
สะดือ และทาที่ฝ่าเท้า แก้อาการปวดท้องของ เด็กได้ และน้ำที่เราเอามาคั้นออกจากใบยังใช้ ขับเสมหะ ขับเหงื่อ หรือ
ใช้ทาภายนอกแก้โรค ผิวหนัง กลาก เกลื้อนได้ นอกจากนี้ ใบสดยังนำมาผัด หรือนำมาแกงเป็นอาหาร ได้อีกด้วย สำหรับ
ใบแห้ง ใช้ชงกินกับน้ำ แก้ท้องขึ้น และน้ำมันที่ได้จากใบกะเพรานั้น สามารถยับยั้งการเจริญเติมโตของเชื้อโรคบางชนิด
ช่วยฆ่าเชื้อจุลินทรีย์บางอย่าง และมีฤทธิ์ฆ่ายุงได้ ซึ่งจะมีฤทธิ์ได้นาน 2 ชั่วโมง
เมล็ด เมื่อนำไปแช่น้ำเมล็ดก็จะพองตัวเป็นเมือก ขาว ให้ใช้พอกในบริเวณตา เมื่อตามีผง หรือฝุ่น ละอองเข้า ผงหรือฝุ่นละออง
นั้นก็จะออกมา ซึ่งจะไม่ทำให้ตาเรานั้นช้ำอีกด้วย
ราก ใช้รากที่แห้งแล้ว ชงหรือต้มกับน้ำร้อนดื่ม แก้โรคธาตุพิการ

ขอบคุณข้อมูลจากสถาบันการแพทย์แผนไทย

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