มะระขี้นก สมุนไพรไทยที่มากกว่าแค่ทานกับน้ำพริก

มะระขี้นก เป็นพืชชนิดหนึ่งที่คนไทยเรารู้จักดีและ โดยเฉพาะในเรื่องของการนำมารัปประทาน เป็นผักที่ใช้ทานคู่กับน้ำพริก (พูดมาแล้วน้ำลายไหล) แม้จะมีรสค่อข้างขม (ถ้าลวกดีๆก็ไม่ขมนะ) แต่รสชาติโดยรวมถือว่าใช้ได้ ซ้ำยังมีสรรพคุณทางยาอีกมายมาย

ข้อมูลทั่วไป
มะระขี้นกมะระขี้นก สมุนไพรไทย
ชื่อวิทยาศาสตร์ Momordica charantia Linn.
ชื่อสกุล  CUCURBITACEAE
ชื่ออื่นที่เรีกกันตามภูมิภาค
ผักไซ (ภาคอิสาน) ผักสะไล มะไห่ ผักไห่ (ภาคเหนือ)

ลักษณะทั่วไป

ต้น เป็นไม้เถา ที่มีลำต้นเลื้อย พาดพันตามต้นไม้ หรือตามร้าน ลักษณะลำต้น เป็นเส้นเล็ก ยาว ลำต้นมีขนขึ้นประปราย
ใบ ใบออกเป็นใบเดี่ยว ออกเรียงสลับกัน ลักษณะของใบหยักเว้าลึก มี 5 – 7 หยัก ปลายใบแหลม ใบมีสีเขียวอ่อน มีรสชาดขม
ดอก ดอกออกเป็นดอกเดี่ยว ออกตาม บริเวณง่ามใบ ลักษณะของดอกมีสีเหลือง กลีบ ดอกบาง ช้ำง่าย
ผล ผลมีลักษณะเป็นรูปกระสวยสั้น พื้น ผิวเปลือกขรุขระ และมีปุ่มยื่นออกมา ผลอ่อน มีเป็นสีเขียว เมื่อแก่เต็มที่ก็จะเปลี่ยนเป็นสี เหลืองอมแดง และผลนั้นก็จะแตกอ้าออก ข้าง ในผลก็จะมีเมล็ดอยู่ เป็นรูปกลม แบน ถ้า เมล็ดสุกก็จะมีสีแดงสด

การขยายพันธุ์ เป็นพรรณไม้ที่ชอบขึ้น ตามบริเวณที่ลุ่มชื้นแฉะ มีการขยายพันธุ์ด้วย การใช้เมล็ด

 

สรรพคุณ

ผล ใช้ผลสด นำมาต้มหรือประกอบเป็น อาหารใช้รับประทาน มีคุณค่าในการช่วยบำบัดโรคเบาหวาน บำรุงธาตุ หรือใช้ผลแห้งนำ มาบดให้ละเอียด ใช้โรยบริเวณที่เป็นแผล ใช้ทาแก้คัน หิด และโรคผิวหนัง เป็นต้น

ราก ใช้ปรุงเป็นยาบำรุง ฝาดสมาน แก้ ริดสีดวงทวาร และเป็นยาธาตุ เป็นต้น

ใบ ใช้ใบสด นำมาลวก หรือต้มกินเป็น ยาฟอกเลือด ยาระบาย เจริญอาหาร หรือใช้ ใบแห้ง นำมาบดให้ละเอียดกับน้ำกินเป็นยา ขับพยาธิ ขับลม และบำรุงธาตุ เป็นต้น

ใบและผล ใช้ใบและผลสด นำมาตำให้ ละเอียดแล้ว คั้นเอาน้ำกินเป็นยาแก้จุกเสียด แน่นท้อง ขับลม บำรุงธาตุ ขับลม และสามารถใช้เป็นยาช่วยถ่ายพยาธิ

 

นี่แหละครับคือประโยชน์ของมะระขี้นกอ่านแล้วยิ่งอยากนำมารับประทานมากขึ้น
ขอบคุณกรมการแพทย์แผนไทยสำหรับข้อมูล

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