บุก สมุนไพรไทย เพื่อหลีกไกล เรื่องอ้วนๆ

บุกมาแล้ว ! บุกมาแล้ว !  รีบหนีเร็ว  เอ๊ะยังไงนี่ เรากำลังดูหนังสงครามอยู่เหรอ เปล่าครับ บุกในที่นี้ไม่ได้ถึงข้าศึกบุก แต่หมายถึงหัวบุก สมุนไพรไทยบ้านเรา ต่างหาก และที่ต้องหนี ไม่ใช่ใครที่ไหน แต่เป็นโรคฮอตฮิตในปัจจุบันอย่างโรคอ้วน โรคเบาหวาน ต่างหากที่ต้องหนีไป

บุก ส่วนที่เห็นคือ หัวบุก ทีแรกเรื่องของบุกในเมืองไทย มันก็ไม่ได้แพร่หลายหรือเป็นที่ได้รับความนิยมเหมือนทุกวันนี้เพราะจริงๆ ทีแรกมันก็เป็นพืชพื้นบ้านอยู่ดี  คนในท้องถิ่นก็นำบุกมาประกอบอาหาร เหมือนเผือก เหมือนมันทั่วไป     พอเริ่มมีคนมาวิจัย   สรรพคุณต่างๆของมัน เลยกลายเป็นพืชสมุนไพรไทยยอดนิยม มีการแปรรูปเป็นรูปแบบต่างๆ ตั้งแต่สารสกัด บุกผง วุ้นบุก และอื่นๆอีกมาก วันนี้เองก็คงจะไม่ช้าเกินไปที่จะนำทุกท่านมารู้จัก พืชสมุนไพรไทย ที่เรียกว่าบุกกันแบบถึงกึ๋น

 

มารู้จักบุกกัน  

ชื่อไทย   บุก 

ชื่อสามัญ  Konjac ,  devil’s tongue  (ลิ้นปิศาจ  น่ากลัวนะครับชื่อนี้ คาดว่ามาจากลักษณะของดอกบุก )   , shade palm, umbrella arum

ชื่อวิทยาศาสตร์      Amorphophallus rivieri Durieu cv. Konjac

ชื่อวงศ์    ARACEAE

ชื่อตามท้องถิ่น  :  บุกคุงคก (ชลบุรี) เบีย เบือ (แม่ฮ่องสอน) มันซูรัน (ภาคดลาง)  หัวบุก (ปัตตานี) บุกคางคก  (ภาคกลาง, เหนือ) บุกหนาม บุกหลวง (แม่ฮ่องสอน)  กระบุก (อิสาน)

 

เราพบบุกได้ที่ไหน

บุกเป็นพืชป่าล้มลุกที่พบทั่วไปทุกภาคของประเทศ โดยขึ้นอยู่ตาม ชายป่า และบางทีก็พบตามพื้นที่ ทำนา เช่นที่ปทุมธานี และนนทบุรี เป็นต้น บุกขึ้นได้ในสภาพดินทุกชนิด แต่จะเจริญเติบโตได้ดีให้หัวขนาด ใหญ่ได้ในดินร่วนซุย น้ำไม่ขังและดินที่มีฮิวมัส หรืออินทรียวัตถุสูง

 

ลักษณะของต้นบุก

ลักษณะของต้น บุก แสดงให้เห็นส่วนประกอบคือใบบุก และหัวบุกลำต้นใต้ดิน  บุกมีลำต้นใต้ดินหรือที่เราเรียกแบบง่ายๆก็คือ หัวบุก  แบบเดียวกับเรียกหัวเผือก หัวมัน ขนาดอยู่ที่ประมาณ 25 เซนติเมตร (บางพันธ์อาจเล็กกว่านี้ )ทรงกลมแป้นลักษณะทรงเดียวกับลูกฟักทอง แต่บางสายพันธ์มีลักษณะพิเศษแตกต่างกันออกไป  ซึ่งส่วนนี้เอง เป็นใช้ที่สะสมอาหารของบุก

 ใบ  ลักษณะเหมือนใบมะละกอ มีสีเขียวเข้ม บางชนิดมีก้านใย เป็นลวดลาย    บางชนิดมีหนามอ่อนๆ  หรือบางทีบุกบางชนิดก็มีใบมีจุดแบบไข่ปลาสีขาวด้านบน  จะเห็นว่าใบบุกมีใบลักษณะที่หลากหลายมาก  แต่ที่เด่นๆสังเกตง่ายว่าเป็บุกคือ จะมีก้านตรงจากกลางของหัว เมื่อโผล่จากดินแล้วแผ่กางออก 3 ทาง มีรูปทรงแผ่กว้างแบบร่ม แต่บาง พันธุ์จะแปลกตรงที่กลับขึ้นด้านบนเหมือนหงายร่ม ดังนั้นลักษณะของใบบุก มีหลายรูปแบบขึ้นกับชนิดของบุก

ดอกของบุก     ลักษณะดอกดอกคล้ายต้นหน้าวัว แต่ละชนิดมีขนาด สี และรูป ทรงต่างกัน บางชนิดมีดอกใหญ่มาก โดยเฉพาะบุกคางคก ดอกบุกมีกลิ่น เหม็นเหมือนเนื้อสัตว์เน่า บุกชนิดอื่นๆ มีดอกเล็กก้านดอกจะโผล่ขึ้นตรง จากกลางหัวบุก เช่นเดียวกับก้านใบ บุกมักจะมีดอกในช่วงปลายฤดูแล้ง แต่บุกสามารถออกดอกได้ในช่วง เวลาต่างๆ กัน ระยะเวลาในการแก่เต็มที่ ของดอกที่จะติดผลก็ต่างกัน

 ผลบุก (อย่าสับสนกับหัวบุกนะ ) หลังจากดอก ผสมพันธุ์ก็จะเกิดผล ผลอ่อนของบุก มีสีขาวอมเหลือง พออายุ ได้ 1-2 เดือน จะมีผลสีเขียวเข้ม มีจุดดำที่ปลายคล้ายผลกล้วย ผล ของบุกส่วนใหญ่จะมีลักษณะคล้ายๆ กัน แต่เมล็ดภายในแตกต่างกัน พบว่าส่วนมากมีเมล็ดเป็นรูปทรงอูมยาว  บุกบางชนิดก็มีเมล็ดในกลม   ผลแก่ของบุกจะมีสีแดงหรือแดงส้ม

 

 

บุกกับการนำมาประกอบอาหาร

เป็นพืชอาหารพื้นบ้านซึ่งคนไทยนำเอาก้านใบมาแกงส้ม ลวกจิ้มน้ำพริก     ส่วนหัวบุกมีการนำไปดัดแปลงตามแต่ละภูมิภาค เช่นทางภาคอีสาน มีการทำขนมที่เรียกว่าขนมบุก แกงบวชมันบุก แกงอีสาน (แกงลาว)   ภาคตะวันออกจะมีการฝาน หัวบุกเป็นแผ่น บางบาง แล้วนำมานึ่งกินกับข้าว ทางภาคเหนือโดยเฉพาะชาวเขา มักนำมา ปิ้งรับประทาน ภาคกลางมักนำหัวบุกที่ฝานเป็นชิ้นบางๆ มาแช่น้ำปูน แช่น้ำก่อนล้างหลายๆ ครั้งแล้วจึงนำไปทำเป็นอาหารหวาน

*บุกมีหลายชนิดหลายพันธุ์ อาจขมและมีพิษ ทุกชนิดมีผลึกแคลเซียมออกซาเลต (calcium oxalate) ทั้งที่ก้านใบและหัว ซึ่งอาจทำให้คัน ก่อนนำมาปรุงอาหารต้องต้มเสียก่อน ไม่งั้นกินเข้าไปทำให้คันปากและลิ้นพอง

อาหารที่แปรรูปมาจากบุก

ปัจจุบันมีการนำบุกมาแปรรูป ทั้งในลักษณะของเส้นบุก ซึ่งคือผลิตภัณฑ์แปรรูปจากส่วนหัวบุก มีแบบเส้นใส สามารถนำมาปรุงเป็นอาหารจานอร่อยได้ ผมว่าใครเคยไปกินเนื้อย่างคงเคยเจอบ้าง   นอกจากเส้นบุกแล้วมีการนำมาผสมเครื่องดื่มต่างๆ เอาแบบฮิตๆสมัยก่อน คือ เจเล่ ผสมผงบุก ถ้าจำไม่ผิดอันนี้เขามาทำเป็นรายแรก (เจ้าของบริษัทผ่านมาอ่านขอค่าโฆษณาด้วยนะครับ)
สรรพคุณของบุก

จากการศึกษาพบว่า  แป้งบุกเป็นคาร์โบไฮเดรตเชิงซ้อน พวกกลูโคแมนแนน (glucomannan) เป็นสารโมเลกุลใหญ่ (polysaccharides)ที่ประกอบด้วยน้ำตาล 2 ชนิด คือ ดี-กลูโคส (D-glucose) และ (D-mannose) เป็นสารที่มีประโยชน์ต่อสุขภาพในรูปของใยอาหาร (dietary fiber)  ซึ่งดูดน้ำได้มาก แต่ร่างกายย่อยสลายได้ยาก ดูดซึมได้ช้า จึงให้พลังงานและสารอาหารน้อย เหลือกากมาก ทำให้ระบบขับถ่ายทำงานดี ผู้ที่ต้องการลดความอ้วนนิยมกินอาหารจากแป้งบุก เช่น วุ้นเส้นบุก เส้นหมี่แป้งหัวบุก เพราะกินอิ่มได้ ระบายท้อง แต่ไม่ทำให้อ้วน

นอกจากนี้เองเจ้า สารกลูโคแมนแนนนี้ สามารถลดปริมาณน้ำตาลในเลือดได้ ก็เนื่องจากความเหนี่ยว ซึ่งยับยั้งการดูดซึมของกลูโคลสจากทางเดินอาหาร ยิ่งหนืดมาก็ยิ่งมีผลลดการดูดซึมกลูโคลส ดังนั้น กลูโคแมนแนนช่วยลดน้ำตาลได้ดีมาก ปัจจุบันจึงใช้แป้งเป็นวุ้นเป็นอาหารสำหรับผู้ป่วยเป็นโรคเบาหวาน และสำหรับผู้ป่วยเป็นโรคมีไขมันในเลือดสูง

นี่แหละครับคือประโยชน์จากบุก ลองหามาทานกันนะครับ มีประโยชน์ขนาดนี้ สมัยนี้ไม่หายากแล้วเดินไปห้าง ก็ได้บุกเส้นแล้ว แนะนำมามายำแบบยำวุ้นเส้นนะครับ รับรองอร่อยแท้ๆ

 

 

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    An preliminary offering of currencies , also called ICO ( Preliminary Coin Offering in English), is a fundraising mechanism wherein new tasks sell their underlying
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