มะขาม ผลไม้สมุนไพรมากคุณค่า

ใครจะรู้ว่า มะขาม จัดเป็นสมุนไพรไทยชนิดหนึ่ง แถมยังเป็นสมุนไพรที่เรียกได้ว่ามากคุณค่าอีกด้วย

มะขาม สมุนไพรไทยชื่อวิทยาศาสตร์ Tamardus lndica Linn วงศ์ Caesalpiniaceae

ชื่ออังกฤษ Tamarind , sampalok

ชื่อท้องถิ่น ขาม ตะลูบ (นครราชสีมา) ม่องโคล้ง มอดเล ส่ามอเกล(แม่ฮ่องสอน) หมากแกงอำเบียล

ลักษณะทางพฤกษศาสตร์ มะขามเป็นพืชยืนต้นขนาดใหญ่ ใบ ประกอบแบบขนนกมีใบย่อย10-15 คู่กลีบดอกมีสีเหลือง ประด้วยจุดแดงดอกรวมกันเป็นช่อ

ผิวของผล

ใช้เป็นยาขับลมในลำไส้ แก้แน่น ใช้เป็นยาบำรุงหัวใจ

สารสำคัญ

ในน้ำมะกรูด มีกรดอินทรีย์

น้ำมันหอมระเหย ประกอบด้วย citronellal และ citronellal acetate

ข้อควรระวัง

ในการบำบัดรักษาด้วยน้ำมันหอมระเหยมีข้อห้าม คือ

1.ห้ามรับประทาน

2.ห้ามสูดดมหรือสัมผัสผัวหนังโดยตรงเว้นแต่ได้ทำให้เจือจางแล้ว

ผล เป็นฝัก เปลือกของฝักเมื่อแก่ ค่อนข้างแข็งแต่บาง เมล็ด แก่สีน้ำตาล

เป็นมันแข็ง

ารใช้เครื่องสำอางและสรรพคุณทางยา

บำรุงผิว

ใบสดใช้ต้มน้ำอาบหลังคลอดหรือผสมกับสมุนไพรอื่น เช่น ขมิ้นชัน ว่านน้ำ เพื่อต้มอาบ อบ สมุนไพร ใบสดมีกรดหลายชนิดที่ช่วยทำให้ผิวพรรณสะอาดขึ้น และช่วยต้านทานโรค เนื่องจากผิวหนังของคนมีฤทธิ์เป็นกรดอ่อน ๆ น้ำต้มใบมะขามมีฤทธิ์เป็นกรดอ่อน ๆ เช่นกัน จึงช่วยเสริมฤทธิ์ของกรดบริเวณผิวหนัง นอกจากนี้น้ำต้มใบมะขามยังใช้บ้างแผลเรื้อรังได้อีกด้วย

ช่วยให้ผิวพรรณสดใสไม่หมองคล้ำ

เนื้อหุ้มเมล็ด ที่เรียกว่ามะขามเปียก มีกรดอินทรีย์หลายชนิด มีฤทธิ์ต้านอนุมูลอิสระ หรือลดความคล้ำของผิว ช่วยให้ผิวสดใสขึ้น ตำราไทยใช้มะขามเปียกเป็นยาระบายอย่างอ่อน แก้ไอ ขับเสมหะ

ถ่ายพยาธิตัวกลมและพยาธิเส้นด้าย

เมื้อในเมล็ด ใช้สำหรับถ่ายพยาธิตัวกลมและพยาธิเส้นด้าย วิธีใช้เอาเมล็ดในที่มีสีขาว ต้มกับน้ำ ใส่เกลือเล็กน้อย รับประทาน 1 ครั้ง หรือคั่วให้เนื้อในเหลือง กะเทาะเปลือกแช่น้ำให้นิ่มเคี่ยว เช่นถั่ว ขนาดใช้ 20-25 เมล็ด

ยาฝาดสมาน

เปลือกต้มใช้เป็นยาฝาดสมาน เนื่องจากมีสารพวกแทนนินสูง

ยาระบาย

โดยใช้มะขามเปียกประมาณ 15-20 กรัมหรือขนาดเท่าหัวแม่มือ ประมาณ 5-6 ก้อน จิ้มเกลือรับประทานแล้วดื่มน้ำตามมาก ๆ

ขับน้ำนม

ใช้แก่นต้มน้ำดื่มครั้งละ 1 ถ้วยระหว่างอยู่ไฟ

สาระสำคัญ

เมล็ด albuminoid 14-20%, fat carbohydrated 59-65%, semidrying fixed oil 3.8-20% , reducing suger 2.8%, mucilaginous matartaric acid,  citric acid, potassium bitarate, invert suger นอกจากนี้ยังมี gum และ pectin เมื่อเอามะขามเปียกขยำน้ำจะเป็นเมือกเล็กน้อยเพราะมี pectin

ข้อควรระวัง

ควรเลือกผลที่ปราศจากแมลงและเชื้อรา

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